Found 13456 matches for
Free testosterone and malignant melanoma risk in men: prospective analyses of testosterone and SHBG with 19 cancers in men and postmenopausal women UK Biobank
We investigated the associations of estimated free and total circulating testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with cancer risk in men and postmenopausal women, using a pan-cancer approach, including 19 cancers in UK Biobank. Risk was estimated using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression in up to 182,608 men and 122,112 postmenopausal women who were cancer-free at baseline. Participants diagnosed with cancer within two years of baseline were excluded. Hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were corrected for regression dilution bias using repeat measurements. We accounted for multiple testing using the false discovery rate. In men, higher free testosterone was associated with higher risks of melanoma and prostate cancer (HR per 50 pmol/L increase=1.35, 95% CI 1.14-1.61 and 1.10,1.04-1.18, respectively). Higher total testosterone was associated with an elevated risk of liver cancer (HR per 5 nmol/L=2.45,1.56-3.84), and higher SHBG was associated with a higher risk of liver cancer (HR per 10 nmol/L=1.56,1.31-1.87) and a lower risk of prostate cancer (0.93,0.91-0.96); associations with liver cancer were attenuated after excluding early follow-up. In postmenopausal women, higher free and total testosterone and lower SHBG were associated with elevated risks of endometrial (HR per 10 pmol/L=1.59,1.32-1.90; HR per 0.5 nmol/L=1.34,1.18-1.52 and HR per 25 nmol/L=0.78,0.67-0.91, respectively) and breast cancer (1.32,1.22-1.43;1.24,1.17-1.31 and 0.88,0.83-0.94, respectively). We report a novel association of free testosterone with malignant melanoma in men; our findings also support known associations between sex hormones and risks for prostate, breast and endometrial cancers. The association with liver cancer in men may be attributable to reverse causation.
Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I, total and free testosterone concentrations and prostate cancer risk in 200,000 men in UK Biobank
<jats:p>Background: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and testosterone have been implicated in prostate cancer aetiology. Using newly available data from a large prospective full-cohort with standardised assays and repeat blood measurements, and genetic data from an international consortium, we aimed to investigate the associations of circulating concentrations of IGF-I, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), total and calculated free testosterone with prostate cancer risk. Patients and methods: For prospective analyses of prostate cancer incidence and mortality, we studied 199,698 male UK Biobank participants using Cox proportional hazards models. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were corrected for regression dilution bias using repeat hormone measurements from a subsample of up to 7,776 men. A 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis of IGF-I and risk used genetic instruments identified from UK Biobank men and genetic outcome data from 79,148 cases and 61,106 controls from the PRACTICAL consortium. We used cis- and all (cis and trans) SNP MR approaches. Results: After a mean follow-up of 6.9 years, 5,402 men were diagnosed with and 295 died from prostate cancer. Higher circulating IGF-I was associated with an elevated risk (HR per 5 nmol/L increment=1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.12) and prostate cancer mortality (HR per 5 nmol/L increment=1.15,1.02-1.29) in observational analyses. Cis- and all SNPs MR analyses also supported the role of IGF-I in prostate cancer diagnosis (cis-MR odds ratio per 5 nmol/L increment=1.34,1.07-1.68). In observational analyses, higher free testosterone was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer (HR per 50 pmol/L increment=1.10,1.05-1.15), and higher SHBG was associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer (HR per 10 nmol/L increment=0.95,0.94-0.97), but neither was associated with prostate cancer mortality. Total testosterone was not associated with prostate cancer. Conclusion(s): These findings implicate IGF-I and free testosterone in prostate cancer development and/or progression.</jats:p>
Description of the updated nutrition calculation of the Oxford WebQ questionnaire and comparison with the previous version among 207,144 participants in UK Biobank.
PURPOSE: The Oxford WebQ is a web-based 24-h dietary assessment method which has been used in UK Biobank and other large prospective studies. The food composition table used to calculate nutrient intakes has recently been replaced with the UK Nutrient Databank, which has food composition data closer in time to when participants completed the questionnaire, and new dietary variables were incorporated. Here we describe the updated version of the Oxford WebQ questionnaire nutrient calculation, and compare nutrient intakes with the previous version used. METHODS: 207,144 UK Biobank participants completed ≥ 1 Oxford WebQs, and means and standard deviations of nutrient intakes were averaged for all completed 24-h dietary assessments. Spearman correlations and weighted kappa statistics were used to compare the re-classification and agreement of nutrient intakes between the two versions. RESULTS: 35 new nutrients were incorporated in the updated version. Compared to the previous version, most nutrients were very similar in the updated version except for a few nutrients which showed a difference of > 10%: lower with the new version for trans-fat (- 20%), and vitamin C (- 15%), but higher for retinol (+ 42%), vitamin D (+ 26%) and vitamin E (+ 20%). Most participants were in the same (> 60%) or adjacent (> 90%) quintile of intake for the two versions. Except for trans-fat (r = 0.58, κ = 0.42), very high correlations were found between the nutrients calculated using the two versions (r > 0.79 and κ > 0.60). CONCLUSION: Small absolute differences in nutrient intakes were observed between the two versions, and the ranking of individuals was minimally affected, except for trans-fat.
Dietary intake and plasma phospholipid concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and trans fatty acids and colorectal cancer risk in the EPIC cohort.
Epidemiologic studies examining the association between specific fatty acids and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are inconclusive. We investigated the association between dietary estimates and plasma levels of individual and total saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), industrial-processed trans (iTFA), and ruminant-sourced trans (rTFA) fatty acids, and CRC risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Baseline fatty acid intakes were estimated in 450,112 participants (6,162 developed CRC, median follow-up=15 years). In a nested case-control study, plasma phospholipid fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography in 433 colon cancer cases and 433 matched controls. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using Cox and conditional logistic regression, respectively. Dietary total SFA (highest vs. lowest quintile, HRQ5vs.Q1 =0.80; 95%CI:0.69-0.92), myristic acid (HRQ5vs.Q1 =0.83, 95%CI:0.74-0.93) and palmitic acid (HRQ5vs.Q1 =0.81, 95%CI:0.70-0.93) were inversely associated with CRC risk. Plasma myristic acid was also inversely associated with colon cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quartile, ORQ4vs.Q1 =0.51; 95%CI:0.32-0.83), whereas a borderline positive association was found for plasma stearic acid (ORQ4vs.Q1 =1.63; 95%CI:1.00-2.64). Dietary total MUFA was inversely associated with colon cancer (per one-standard deviation increment, HR1-SD =0.92, 95%CI: 0.85-0.98), but not rectal cancer (HR1-SD =1.04, 95%CI:0.95-1.15, Pheterogeneity =0.027). Dietary iTFA, and particularly elaidic acid, was positively associated with rectal cancer (HR1-SD =1.07, 95%CI:1.02-1.13). Our results suggest that total and individual saturated fatty acids and fatty acids of industrial origin may be relevant to the aetiology of CRC. Both dietary and plasma myristic acid levels were inversely associated with colon cancer risk, which warrants further investigation.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk. METHODS: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5,069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci. RESULTS: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta-carotene, fruit, fibre, non-white bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary HR per 1 SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95%CI:1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (1.04; 1.02-1.06), wine (1.04;1.02-1.07), beer/cider (1.06;1.04-1.08), milk (0.95;0.93-0.98), cheese (0.96;0.94-0.99), calcium (0.93;0.90-0.95), phosphorus (0.92;0.90-0.95), magnesium (0.95;0.92-0.98), potassium (0.96;0.94-0.99), riboflavin (0.94;0.92-0.97), beta-carotene (0.96;0.93-0.98), and total protein (0.94;0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta-carotene and total protein.
While we continue to wrestle with the immense challenge of implementing equitable access to established evidence-based treatments, substantial gaps remain in our pharmacotherapy armament for common forms of cardiovascular disease including coronary and peripheral arterial disease, heart failure, hypertension, and arrhythmia. We need to continue to invest in the development of new approaches for the discovery, rigorous assessment, and implementation of new therapies. Currently, the time and cost to progress from lead compound/product identification to the clinic, and the success rate in getting there reduces the incentive for industry to invest, despite the enormous burden of disease and potential size of market. There are tremendous opportunities with improved phenotyping of patients currently batched together in syndromic "buckets." Use of advanced imaging and molecular markers may allow stratification of patients in a manner more aligned to biological mechanisms that can, in turn, be targeted by specific approaches developed using high-throughput molecular technologies. Unbiased "omic" approaches enhance the possibility of discovering completely new mechanisms in such groups. Furthermore, advances in drug discovery platforms, and models to study efficacy and toxicity more relevant to the human disease, are valuable. Re-imagining the relationships among discovery, translation, evaluation, and implementation will help reverse the trend away from investment in the cardiovascular space, establishing innovative platforms and approaches across the full spectrum of therapeutic development.
Meat consumption and risk of 25 common conditions: outcome-wide analyses in 475,000 men and women in the UK Biobank study
Abstract Background There is limited prospective evidence on the association between meat consumption and many common, non-cancerous health outcomes. We examined associations of meat intake with risk of 25 common conditions (other than cancer). Methods We used data from 474,985 middle-aged adults recruited into the UK Biobank study between 2006 and 2010 and followed up until 2017 (mean follow-up 8.0 years) with available information on meat intake at baseline (collected via touchscreen questionnaire), and linked hospital admissions and mortality data. For a large sub-sample (~ 69,000), dietary intakes were re-measured three or more times using an online, 24-h recall questionnaire. Results On average, participants who reported consuming meat regularly (three or more times per week) had more adverse health behaviours and characteristics than participants who consumed meat less regularly, and most of the positive associations observed for meat consumption and health risks were substantially attenuated after adjustment for body mass index (BMI). In multi-variable adjusted (including BMI) Cox regression models corrected for multiple testing, higher consumption of unprocessed red and processed meat combined was associated with higher risks of ischaemic heart disease (hazard ratio (HRs) per 70 g/day higher intake 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.07–1.23), pneumonia (1.31, 1.18–1.44), diverticular disease (1.19, 1.11–1.28), colon polyps (1.10, 1.06–1.15), and diabetes (1.30, 1.20–1.42); results were similar for unprocessed red meat and processed meat intakes separately. Higher consumption of unprocessed red meat alone was associated with a lower risk of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA: HR per 50 g/day higher intake 0.80, 95% CIs 0.72–0.90). Higher poultry meat intake was associated with higher risks of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (HR per 30 g/day higher intake 1.17, 95% CIs 1.09–1.26), gastritis and duodenitis (1.12, 1.05–1.18), diverticular disease (1.10, 1.04–1.17), gallbladder disease (1.11, 1.04–1.19), and diabetes (1.14, 1.07–1.21), and a lower IDA risk (0.83, 0.76–0.90). Conclusions Higher unprocessed red meat, processed meat, and poultry meat consumption was associated with higher risks of several common conditions; higher BMI accounted for a substantial proportion of these increased risks suggesting that residual confounding or mediation by adiposity might account for some of these remaining associations. Higher unprocessed red meat and poultry meat consumption was associated with lower IDA risk.
Describing a new food group classification system for UK biobank: analysis of food groups and sources of macro- and micronutrients in 208,200 participants.
PURPOSE: The UK Biobank study collected detailed dietary data using a web-based self-administered 24 h assessment tool, the Oxford WebQ. We aimed to describe a comprehensive food grouping system for this questionnaire and to report dietary intakes and key sources of selected nutrients by sex and education. METHODS: Participants with at least one valid 24-h questionnaire were included (n = 208,200). Dietary data were grouped based on the presence of nutrients as well as culinary use, processing, and plant/animal origin. For each food group, we calculated the contribution to energy intake, key macronutrients, and micronutrients. We also identified the top contributors to energy intake, free sugars and saturated fat by sex and education. RESULTS: From the 93 food groups, the top five contributors to energy intake (in descending order) were: desserts/cakes/pastries; white bread; white pasta/rice; bananas/other fruit; semi-skimmed milk. Wine, beer, and fruit juices were the top beverage contributors to overall energy intake. Biscuits, and desserts/cakes/pastries were the highest contributors to free sugars, total fat, and saturated fat intakes, but also contributed to the calcium and iron intakes. Top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and free sugars were broadly similar by sex and education category, with small differences in average nutrient intakes across the population. CONCLUSION: This new food classification system will support the growing interest in the associations between food groups and health outcomes and the development of food-based dietary guidelines. Food group variables will be available to all users of the UK Biobank WebQ questionnaire.
Genetically predicted circulating concentrations of micronutrients and risk of colorectal cancer among individuals of European descent: a Mendelian randomization study.
BACKGROUND: The literature on associations of circulating concentrations of minerals and vitamins with risk of colorectal cancer is limited and inconsistent. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support the efficacy of dietary modification or nutrient supplementation for colorectal cancer prevention is also limited. OBJECTIVES: To complement observational and RCT findings, we investigated associations of genetically predicted concentrations of 11 micronutrients (β-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and zinc) with colorectal cancer risk using Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS: Two-sample MR was conducted using 58,221 individuals with colorectal cancer and 67,694 controls from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry. Inverse variance-weighted MR analyses were performed with sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential violations of MR assumptions. RESULTS: Nominally significant associations were noted for genetically predicted iron concentration and higher risk of colon cancer [ORs per SD (ORSD): 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17; P value = 0.05] and similarly for proximal colon cancer, and for vitamin B-12 concentration and higher risk of colorectal cancer (ORSD: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21; P value = 0.01) and similarly for colon cancer. A nominally significant association was also noted for genetically predicted selenium concentration and lower risk of colon cancer (ORSD: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.00; P value = 0.05) and similarly for distal colon cancer. These associations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Nominally significant inverse associations were observed for zinc and risk of colorectal and distal colon cancers, but sensitivity analyses could not be performed. None of these findings survived correction for multiple testing. Genetically predicted concentrations of β-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin B-6 were not associated with disease risk. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest possible causal associations of circulating iron and vitamin B-12 (positively) and selenium (inversely) with risk of colon cancer.
Red blood cell fatty acids and risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that alterations of dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, data from large-scale epidemiological studies using circulating FA measurements to objectively assess individual FA and FA categories are scarce. METHODS: To investigate the association between red blood cell (RBC) membrane FAs and risk of CRC in a case-control study nested within a large prospective cohort. After a median follow-up of 6.4 years, 1069 incident CRC cases were identified and matched to 1069 controls among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The FA composition of RBC phospholipids (in mol%) was analyzed by gas chromatography, and their association with risk of CRC was estimated by multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: After correction for multiple testing, subjects with higher concentrations of RBC stearic acid were at higher risk for CRC (OR=1.23; 95% CI=1.07-1.42, per 1 mol%). Conversely, CRC incidence decreased with increasing proportions of RBC n-3 PUFA, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (0.75; 0.62-0.92, per 1 mol%). The findings for the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: The positive association between pre-diagnostic RBC stearic acid and CRC reflects putative differences in FA intake and metabolism between cancer cases and matched controls which deserve further investigation. The inverse relationship between EPA and CRC is in line with the repeatedly reported protective effect of fish consumption on CRC risk. IMPACT: These findings add to the evidence on CRC prevention.
Atherosclerosis is a disease of chronic inflammation. We investigated the roles of the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, the classical activators of STAT6, in the resolution of atherosclerosis inflammation. Using Il4-/-Il13-/- mice, resolution was impaired, and in control mice, in both progressing and resolving plaques, levels of IL-4 were stably low, and IL-13 was undetectable. This suggested that IL-4 is required for atherosclerosis resolution, but collaborates with other factors. We had observed increased Wnt signaling in macrophages in resolving plaques, and human genetic data from others showed that a loss-of-function Wnt mutation was associated with premature atherosclerosis. We now find an inverse association between activation of Wnt signaling and disease severity in mice and humans. Wnt enhanced the expression of inflammation resolving factors after treatment with plaque-relevant low concentrations of IL-4. Mechanistically, activation of the Wnt pathway following lipid lowering potentiates IL-4 responsiveness in macrophages via a PGE2/STAT3 axis.