Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Previous research found tobacco smoking and solid fuel use for cooking to increase the risk of chronic liver disease mortality, but previous cohort studies have not investigated their independent and joint associations with liver cancer incidence in contemporary China. The China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study recruited 0.5 million adults aged 30-79 years from 10 areas across China during 2004-2008. Participants reported detailed smoking and fuel use information at baseline. After an 11.1-year median follow-up via electronic record linkage, we recorded 2,997 liver cancer cases. Overall, 29.4% participants were current smokers. Among those who cooked at least once per month, 48.8% always used solid fuels (i.e. coal or wood) for cooking. Tobacco smoking and solid fuel use for cooking were independently associated with increased risks of liver cancer, with HRs (95% CIs) of 1.28 (1.15-1.42) and 1.25 (1.03-1.52), respectively. The more cigarettes consumed each day, the earlier the age of starting smoking, or the longer duration of solid fuels exposure, the higher the risk (Ptrend <0.001, =0.001, =0.018, respectively). Compared with never smokers who had always used clean fuels (i.e. gas or electricity), ever-smokers who had always used solid fuels for cooking had a 67% (95% CIs: 1.29-2.17) higher risk. Among Chinese adults, tobacco smoking and solid fuel use for cooking were independently associated with higher risk of liver cancer incidence. Stronger association was observed with higher number of daily cigarette consumption, the earlier age of starting smoking and longer duration of solid fuel use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Cancer

Publication Date



Liver cancer, Prospective cohort study, Solid fuel, Tobacco smoking