Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Background: Lifestyle factors are associated with chronic liver disease (CLD) and death after CLD diagnosis. However, their associations with pathways of CLD progression have been unclear, particularly transition to cardiometabolic disease (CMD), a major comorbid condition with CLD. We assessed the associations of lifestyle factors with CLD progression. Methods: The study population involved 486,828 participants of the prospective China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) aged 30-79 years without a history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, CLD, or cancer at baseline. Liver-cardiometabolic comorbidity (LCC) was defined as developing CMD subsequently after first CLD (FCLD) in an individual. A multi-state model was used to estimate the associations of high-risk lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, and central adiposity) with CLD progression from healthy to FCLD, subsequently to LCC, and further to death. Findings: During a median follow-up of 11 years, 5046 participants developed FCLD, 519 developed LCC, and 157 died afterwards. There were positive associations between the number of high-risk lifestyle factors and risks of all transitions. The hazard ratios (95% CIs) per 1-factor increase were 1.30 (1.25-1.35) for transitions from baseline to FCLD, 1.21 (1.09-1.34) for FCLD to LCC, 1.20 (1.17-1.23) for baseline to death, 1.15 (1.09-1.22) for FCLD to death, and 1.17 (1.06-1.31) for LCC to death. For CLD subtypes, lifestyle factors showed different associations with disease-specific transitions even within the same transition stage. Interpretation: High-risk lifestyle factors played a key role in all disease transition stages from healthy to FCLD, subsequently to LCC, and then to death, with different magnitude of associations. Funding: Kadoorie Charitable Foundation, Chinese MoST and NSFC.

Original publication




Journal article


Lancet Reg Health West Pac

Publication Date





Cardiometabolic disease, Chinese, Chronic liver disease, Comorbidity, Lifestyle