Acute Response in the Noninfarcted Myocardium Predicts Long-Term Major Adverse Cardiac Events After STEMI.
Shanmuganathan M., Masi A., Burrage MK., Kotronias RA., Borlotti A., Scarsini R., Banerjee A., Terentes-Printzios D., Zhang Q., Hann E., Tunnicliffe E., Lucking A., Langrish J., Kharbanda R., De Maria GL., Banning AP., Choudhury RP., Channon KM., Piechnik SK., Ferreira VM., OxAMI Study Investigators None.
BACKGROUND: Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has effects on the myocardium beyond the immediate infarcted territory. However, pathophysiologic changes in the noninfarcted myocardium and their prognostic implications remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term prognostic value of acute changes in both infarcted and noninfarcted myocardium post-STEMI. METHODS: Patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention underwent evaluation with blood biomarkers and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) at 2 days and 6 months, with long-term follow-up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE). A comprehensive CMR protocol included cine, T2-weighted, T2∗, T1-mapping, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. Areas without LGE were defined as noninfarcted myocardium. MACE was a composite of cardiac death, sustained ventricular arrhythmia, and new-onset heart failure. RESULTS: Twenty-two of 219 patients (10%) experienced an MACE at a median of 4 years (IQR: 2.5-6.0 years); 152 patients returned for the 6-month visit. High T1 (>1250 ms) in the noninfarcted myocardium was associated with lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (51% ± 8% vs 55% ± 9%; P = 0.002) and higher NT-pro-BNP levels (290 pg/L [IQR: 103-523 pg/L] vs 170 pg/L [IQR: 61-312 pg/L]; P = 0.008) at 6 months and a 2.5-fold (IQR: 1.03-6.20) increased risk of MACE (2.53 [IQR: 1.03-6.22]), compared with patients with normal T1 in the noninfarcted myocardium (P = 0.042). A lower T1 (<1,300 ms) in the infarcted myocardium was associated with increased MACE (3.11 [IQR: 1.19-8.13]; P = 0.020). Both noninfarct and infarct T1 were independent predictors of MACE (both P = 0.001) and significantly improved risk prediction beyond LVEF, infarct size, and microvascular obstruction (C-statistic: 0.67 ± 0.07 vs 0.76 ± 0.06, net-reclassification index: 40% [IQR: 12%-64%]; P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: The acute responses post-STEMI in both infarcted and noninfarcted myocardium are independent incremental predictors of long-term MACE. These insights may provide new opportunities for treatment and risk stratification in STEMI.