Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors as novel regulators of vascular disease.
Akoumianakis I., Antoniades C.
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) has been revealed as an adipokine with potential relevance in cardiovascular disease (CVD), while clinically used DPP-IV inhibitors have demonstrated beneficial cardiovascular effects in several experimental studies. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is a unique adipose tissue depot in close anatomical proximity and bidirectional functional interaction with the vascular wall, which is a source of DPP-IV and its biology may be influenced by DPP-IV inhibition. Recently, DPP-IV inhibition has been associated with decreased local inflammation and oxidative stress both in the vascular wall and the PVAT, potentially regulating atherogenesis progression in vivo. DPP-IV inhibition may thus be a promising target in cardiovascular disease. However, the exact pleiotropic mechanisms that underlie the cardiovascular effects of DPP-IV inhibition need to be clarified, while the in vivo benefit of DPP-IV inhibition in humans remains unclear.