Hyper-acute cardiovascular magnetic resonance T1 mapping predicts infarct characteristics in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction.
Alkhalil M., Borlotti A., De Maria GL., Wolfrum M., Dawkins S., Fahrni G., Gaughran L., Oxford Acute Myocardial Infarction (OxAMI) Study None., Langrish JP., Lucking A., Ferreira VM., Kharbanda RK., Banning AP., Dall'Armellina E., Channon KM., Choudhury RP.
BACKGROUND: Myocardial recovery after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction is variable and the extent and severity of injury are difficult to predict. We sought to investigate the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance T1 mapping in the determination of myocardial injury very early after treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: STEMI patients underwent 3 T cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), within 3 h of primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI). T1 mapping determined the extent (area-at-risk as %left ventricle, AAR) and severity (average T1 values of AAR) of acute myocardial injury, and related these to late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and microvascular obstruction (MVO). The characteristics of myocardial injury within 3 h was compared with changes at 24-h to predict final infarct size. RESULTS: Forty patients were included in this study. Patients with average T1 values of AAR ≥1400 ms within 3 h of PPCI had larger LGE at 24-h (33% ±14 vs. 18% ±10, P = 0.003) and at 6-months (27% ±9 vs. 12% ±9; P < 0.001), higher incidence and larger extent of MVO (85% vs. 40%, P = 0.016) & [4.0 (0.5-9.5)% vs. 0 (0-3.0)%, P = 0.025]. The average T1 value was an independent predictor of acute LGE (β 0.61, 95%CI 0.13 to 1.09; P = 0.015), extent of MVO (β 0.22, 95%CI 0.03 to 0.41, P = 0.028) and final infarct size (β 0.63, 95%CI 0.21 to 1.05; P = 0.005). Receiver-operating-characteristic analysis showed that T1 value of AAR obtained within 3-h, but not at 24-h, predicted large infarct size (LGE > 9.5%) with 100% positive predictive value at the optimal cut-off of 1400 ms (area-under-the-curve, AUC 0.88, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Hyper-acute T1 values of the AAR (within 3 h post PPCI, but not 24 h) predict a larger extent of MVO and infarct size at both 24 h and 6 months follow-up. Delayed CMR scanning for 24 h could not substitute the significant value of hyper-acute average T1 in determining infarct characteristics.