Dietary Patterns Characterized by Fat Type in Association with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: A Longitudinal Study of UK Biobank Participants
Brayner B., Kaur G., Keske MA., Perez-Cornago A., Piernas C., Livingstone KM.
ABSTRACT Background The fat type consumed is considered a risk factor for developing obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, these associations have not been investigated using a dietary patterns approach, which can capture combinations of foods and fat type consumed. Objectives This study aimed to investigate associations between dietary patterns with varying proportions of SFAs, MUFAs, or PUFAs and obesity, abdominal obesity, and self-reported T2D incidence. Methods This study included UK Biobank participants with 2 or more 24-h dietary assessments, free from the outcome of interest at recruitment, and with outcome data at follow-up (n = 16,523; mean follow-up: 6.3 y). Reduced rank regression was used to derive dietary patterns with SFAs, MUFAs, and PUFAs (% of energy intake) as response variables. Logistic regression, adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics, was used to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and obesity [BMI (kg/m2) ≥30], abdominal obesity (waist circumference; men: ≥102 cm; women: ≥88 cm) and T2D incidence. Results Two dietary patterns, DP1 and DP2, were identified: DP1 positively correlated with SFAs (r = 0.48), MUFAs (r = 0.67), and PUFAs (r = 0.56), characterized by higher intake of nuts, seeds, and butter and lower intake of fruit and low-fat yogurt; DP2 positively correlated with SFAs (r = 0.76) and negatively with PUFAs (r = −0.64) and MUFAs (r = −0.01), characterized by higher intake of butter and high-fat cheese and lower intake of nuts and seeds. Only DP2 was associated with higher obesity and abdominal obesity incidence (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.45; and OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.38, respectively). Neither of the dietary patterns was associated with T2D incidence. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that a dietary pattern characterized by higher SFA and lower PUFA foods is associated with obesity and abdominal obesity incidence, but not T2D.