Urinary element profiles and associations with cardiometabolic diseases: A cross-sectional study across ten areas in China.
Xu L., Liu Y., Zhao Q., Du H., Gao Y., Bai M., Lv J., Guo Y., Li L., Sun L., Lin X., Chen Z., Chen Y., Zong G.
BACKGROUND: Existing evidence on the associations of urinary element profiles with related food intake and cardiometabolic diseases has been limited in China. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of urinary toxic metals and other elements with food intakes and with the prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases. METHODS: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), and 16 other elements in spot urine samples collected from 19,380 adults in 10 geographically diverse areas of China during 2013-2014. The levels of creatinine-corrected elements were used to analyze their correlations with self-reported dietary intake and associations with prevalent diabetes (n = 1862), stroke (n = 1322) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) (n = 1690). RESULTS: Overall, the mean (SD) age was 59.2 (10.1) years with a mean BMI of 24.2 (3.5) kg/m2. Of the 21 elements, the median (IQR) concentrations varied from 0.49 (0.31-0.82) μg/g creatinine for vanadium (V) to 1666 (1189-2321) mg/g creatinine for potassium (K). Nine urinary elements [Cd, As, Ni, lead (Pb), boron (B), magnesium (Mg), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), and cesium (Cs); all rs > 0.20, p 0.20, p