Assessment of myocardial infarction in humans with (23)Na MR imaging: comparison with cine MR imaging and delayed contrast enhancement.
Sandstede JJ., Pabst T., Beer M., Lipke C., Bäurle K., Butter F., Harre K., Kenn W., Voelker W., Neubauer S., Hahn D.
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of sodium 23 ((23)Na) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for assessment of subacute and chronic myocardial infarction and compare with cine, late enhancement, and T2-weighted imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients underwent MR imaging 8 days +/- 4 (subacute, n = 15) or more than 6 months (chronic, n = 15) after myocardial infarction by using a (23)Na surface coil with a double angulated electrocardiogram-triggered three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence at 1.5 T. In addition, cine, inversion-recovery gradient-echo, and, in the subacute group, T2-weighted images (n = 9) were obtained. Myocardial infarction mass was depicted as elevated signal intensity or wall motion abnormalities and expressed as a percentage of total left ventricular mass for all modalities. Correlations were tested with correlation coefficients. RESULTS: All patients after subacute infarction and 12 of 15 patients with chronic infarction had an area of elevated (23)Na signal intensity that significantly correlated with wall motion abnormalities (subacute; r = 0.96, P <.001, and chronic; r = 0.9, P <.001); three patients had no wall motion abnormalities or elevated (23)Na signal intensity. Only 10 patients in the subacute and nine in the chronic group revealed late enhancement; significant correlation with (23)Na MR imaging occurred only in subacute group (r = 0.68, P <.05). Myocardial edema in subacute infarction correlated (r = 0.71, P <.05) with areas of elevated (23)Na signal intensity but was extensively larger. CONCLUSION: (23)Na MR imaging demonstrates dysfunctional myocardium caused by subacute and chronic myocardial infarction.