Growth hormone- and pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy evoke different responses to ischemia-reperfusion and mechanical stretch.
Strömer H., Palmieri EA., De Groot MCH., Di Rella F., Leupold A., Horn M., Monti MG., Napoli R., Di Gianni A., Isgaard J., Saccà L., Neubauer S., Cittadini A.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the molecular, histological, and functional characteristics of growth hormone (GH)- and pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and their responses to ischemia-reperfusion and mechanical stretch. DESIGN: Four groups of male Wistar rats were studied: aortic banding (n=24, AB) or sham (n=24, controls) for 10 weeks, and GH treatment (n=24; 3.5mg/kg/day, GH) or placebo (n=24, controls) for 4 weeks. At 13 weeks, the rats were randomly subjected to: (i) assessment of basal left ventricular mRNA expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA-2), phospholamban (PLB), and Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) and collagen volume fraction (CVF) (Protocol A, 8 rats in each group); (ii) left ventricular no-flow ischemia with simultaneous evaluation of intracellular Ca(2+) handling and ATP, phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) content (Protocol B, 12 rats in each group); or (iii) left ventricular mechanical stretch for 40 min with assessment of tumor necrosis-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA (Protocol C, 4 rats in each group). Protocol B and C were carried out in a Langendorff apparatus. RESULTS: In Protocol A, no difference was found as to myocardial mRNA content of Ca(2+) regulating proteins and CVF in GH animals vs controls. In contrast, in the AB group, myocardial mRNA expression of SERCA-2 and PLB was downregulated while that of NCX and CVF were increased vs. controls (p<0.05). In Protocol B, recovery of left ventricular function was significantly decreased in AB vs GH groups and controls and this was associated with 1.6-fold increase in intracellular Ca(2+) overload during reperfusion (p<0.05). Baseline ATP content was similar in the four study groups, whereas PCr and Pi was lower in AB vs GH rats and controls. However, the time courses of high-energy phosphate metabolic changes did not differ during ischemia and reperfusion in the four study groups. In Protocol C, no detectable TNF-alpha mRNA level was found in the left ventricular myocardium of GH treated rats and controls at baseline, while a modest expression was noted in AB animals. Mechanical stretch resulted in de novo myocardial TNF-alpha mRNA expression in GH group and controls, which was dramatically increased in AB animals ( approximately 5-fold above baseline, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The data show that cardiac hypertrophy activated by short-term GH treatment confers cardioprotection compared with pressure overload with regard to molecular and histological characteristics, and responses to ischemia-reperfusion and mechanical stretch.