Fibrosis is a common pathological feature of organ diseases resulting from excessive production of extracellular matrix, which accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. However, there is currently no effective treatment targeting fibrogenesis. Recently, metabolic alterations are increasingly considered as essential factors underlying fibrogenesis, and especially research on metabolic regulation of amino acids is flourishing. Among them, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are the most abundant essential amino acids, including leucine, isoleucine and valine, which play significant roles in the substance and energy metabolism and their regulation. Dysregulation of BCAAs metabolism has been proven to contribute to numerous diseases. In this review, we summarize the metabolic regulation of fibrosis and the changes in BCAAs metabolism secondary to fibrosis. We also review the effects and mechanisms of the BCAAs intervention, and its therapeutic targeting in hepatic, renal and cardiac fibrosis, with a focus on the fibrosis in liver and associated hepatocellular carcinoma.
Branched-chain amino acids, Fibrosis, Liver, Metabolism