Determinants of recovery from post-COVID-19 dyspnoea: analysis of UK prospective cohorts of hospitalised COVID-19 patients and community-based controls
Zheng B., Vivaldi G., Daines L., Leavy OC., Richardson M., Elneima O., McAuley HJC., Shikotra A., Singapuri A., Sereno M., Saunders RM., Harris VC., Houchen-Wolloff L., Greening NJ., Pfeffer PE., Hurst JR., Brown JS., Shankar-Hari M., Echevarria C., De Soyza A., Harrison EM., Docherty AB., Lone N., Quint JK., Chalmers JD., Ho LP., Horsley A., Marks M., Poinasamy K., Raman B., Heaney LG., Wain LV., Evans RA., Brightling CE., Martineau A., Sheikh A., Abel K., Adamali H., Adeloye D., Adeyemi O., Adrego R., Aguilar Jimenez LA., Ahmad S., Ahmad Haider N., Ahmed R., Ahwireng N., Ainsworth M., Al-Sheklly B., Alamoudi A., Ali M., Aljaroof M., All AM., Allan L., Allen RJ., Allerton L., Allsop L., Almeida P., Altmann D., Alvarez Corral M., Amoils S., Anderson D., Antoniades C., Arbane G., Arias A., Armour C., Armstrong L., Armstrong N., Arnold D., Arnold H., Ashish A., Ashworth A., Ashworth M., Aslani S., Assefa-Kebede H., Atkin C., Atkin P., Aul R., Aung H., Austin L., Avram C., Ayoub A., Babores M., Baggott R., Bagshaw J., Baguley D., Bailey L., Baillie JK., Bain S., Bakali M., Bakau M., Baldry E., Baldwin D., Baldwin M., Ballard C., Banerjee A., Bang B., Barker RE., Barman L., Barratt S., Barrett F.
Background: The risk factors for recovery from COVID-19 dyspnoea are poorly understood. We investigated determinants of recovery from dyspnoea in adults with COVID-19 and compared these to determinants of recovery from non-COVID-19 dyspnoea. Methods: We used data from two prospective cohort studies: PHOSP-COVID (patients hospitalised between March 2020 and April 2021 with COVID-19) and COVIDENCE UK (community cohort studied over the same time period). PHOSP-COVID data were collected during hospitalisation and at 5-month and 1-year follow-up visits. COVIDENCE UK data were obtained through baseline and monthly online questionnaires. Dyspnoea was measured in both cohorts with the Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify determinants associated with a reduction in dyspnoea between 5-month and 1-year follow-up. Findings: We included 990 PHOSP-COVID and 3309 COVIDENCE UK participants. We observed higher odds of improvement between 5-month and 1-year follow-up among PHOSP-COVID participants who were younger (odds ratio 1.02 per year, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), male (1.54, 1.16–2.04), neither obese nor severely obese (1.82, 1.06–3.13 and 4.19, 2.14–8.19, respectively), had no pre-existing anxiety or depression (1.56, 1.09–2.22) or cardiovascular disease (1.33, 1.00–1.79), and shorter hospital admission (1.01 per day, 1.00–1.02). Similar associations were found in those recovering from non-COVID-19 dyspnoea, excluding age (and length of hospital admission). Interpretation: Factors associated with dyspnoea recovery at 1-year post-discharge among patients hospitalised with COVID-19 were similar to those among community controls without COVID-19. Funding: PHOSP-COVID is supported by a grant from the MRC-UK Research and Innovation and the Department of Health and Social Care through the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) rapid response panel to tackle COVID-19. The views expressed in the publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the National Health Service (NHS), the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care. COVIDENCE UK is supported by the UK Research and Innovation, the National Institute for Health Research, and Barts Charity. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the funders.