Role of Cardiac Energetics in Aortic Stenosis Disease Progression: Identifying the High-risk Metabolic Phenotype.
Monga S., Valkovič L., Myerson SG., Neubauer S., Mahmod M., Rider OJ.
BACKGROUND: Severe aortic stenosis (AS) is associated with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and cardiac metabolic alterations with evidence of steatosis and impaired myocardial energetics. Despite this common phenotype, there is an unexplained and wide individual heterogeneity in the degree of hypertrophy and progression to myocardial fibrosis and heart failure. We sought to determine whether the cardiac metabolic state may underpin this variability. METHODS: We recruited 74 asymptomatic participants with AS and 13 healthy volunteers. Cardiac energetics were measured using phosphorus spectroscopy to define the myocardial phosphocreatine to adenosine triphosphate ratio. Myocardial lipid content was determined using proton spectroscopy. Cardiac function was assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance cine imaging. RESULTS: Phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate was reduced early and significantly across the LV wall thickness quartiles (Q2, 1.50 [1.21-1.71] versus Q1, 1.64 [1.53-1.94]) with a progressive decline with increasing disease severity (Q4, 1.48 [1.18-1.70]; P=0.02). Myocardial triglyceride content levels were overall higher in all the quartiles with a significant increase seen across the AV pressure gradient quartiles (Q2, 1.36 [0.86-1.98] versus Q1, 1.03 [0.81-1.56]; P=0.034). While all AS groups had evidence of subclinical LV dysfunction with impaired strain parameters, impaired systolic longitudinal strain was related to the degree of energetic impairment (r=0.219; P=0.03). Phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate was not only an independent predictor of LV wall thickness (r=-0.20; P=0.04) but also strongly associated with myocardial fibrosis (r=-0.24; P=0.03), suggesting that metabolic changes play a role in disease progression. The metabolic and functional parameters showed comparable results when graded by clinical severity of AS. CONCLUSIONS: A gradient of myocardial energetic deficit and steatosis exists across the spectrum of hypertrophied AS hearts, and these metabolic changes precede irreversible LV remodeling and subclinical dysfunction. As such, cardiac metabolism may play an important and potentially causal role in disease progression.