The genetic association between personality and major depression or bipolar disorder. A polygenic score analysis using genome-wide association data.
Middeldorp CM., de Moor MHM., McGrath LM., Gordon SD., Blackwood DH., Costa PT., Terracciano A., Krueger RF., de Geus EJC., Nyholt DR., Tanaka T., Esko T., Madden PAF., Derringer J., Amin N., Willemsen G., Hottenga J-J., Distel MA., Uda M., Sanna S., Spinhoven P., Hartman CA., Ripke S., Sullivan PF., Realo A., Allik J., Heath AC., Pergadia ML., Agrawal A., Lin P., Grucza RA., Widen E., Cousminer DL., Eriksson JG., Palotie A., Barnett JH., Lee PH., Luciano M., Tenesa A., Davies G., Lopez LM., Hansell NK., Medland SE., Ferrucci L., Schlessinger D., Montgomery GW., Wright MJ., Aulchenko YS., Janssens ACJW., Oostra BA., Metspalu A., Abecasis GR., Deary IJ., Räikkönen K., Bierut LJ., Martin NG., Wray NR., van Duijn CM., Smoller JW., Penninx BWJH., Boomsma DI.
The relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) remains controversial. Previous research has reported differences and similarities in risk factors for MDD and BD, such as predisposing personality traits. For example, high neuroticism is related to both disorders, whereas openness to experience is specific for BD. This study examined the genetic association between personality and MDD and BD by applying polygenic scores for neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness to both disorders. Polygenic scores reflect the weighted sum of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles associated with the trait for an individual and were based on a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for personality traits including 13,835 subjects. Polygenic scores were tested for MDD in the combined Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN-MDD) and MDD2000+ samples (N=8921) and for BD in the combined Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder and Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium samples (N=6329) using logistic regression analyses. At the phenotypic level, personality dimensions were associated with MDD and BD. Polygenic neuroticism scores were significantly positively associated with MDD, whereas polygenic extraversion scores were significantly positively associated with BD. The explained variance of MDD and BD, ∼0.1%, was highly comparable to the variance explained by the polygenic personality scores in the corresponding personality traits themselves (between 0.1 and 0.4%). This indicates that the proportions of variance explained in mood disorders are at the upper limit of what could have been expected. This study suggests shared genetic risk factors for neuroticism and MDD on the one hand and for extraversion and BD on the other.