Concentrations of human cardiac phosphorus metabolites determined by SLOOP 31P NMR spectroscopy.
Meininger M., Landschütz W., Beer M., Seyfarth T., Horn M., Pabst T., Haase A., Hahn D., Neubauer S., von Kienlin M.
Human cardiac 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are usually quantified in relative terms, i.e., the ratio of metabolite signals is calculated. If 31P NMR spectroscopy of the heart is to emerge as a clinically relevant diagnostic modality, reliable quantification of absolute concentrations of 31P metabolites is required. We applied spectral localization with optimal point spread function (SLOOP) 31P NMR spectroscopy to measure absolute concentrations of phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in human myocardium. The accuracy of the quantification was first validated in a phantom study. Seven healthy volunteers (aged 19-29 years) were then examined at 1.5 T using a nominal spatial resolution of 25 mL. SLOOP allowed us to obtain localized spectra from compartments anatomically matched to the left ventricular wall. The a priori knowledge of the anatomical structure was obtained from 1H images. The spatially varying effects of saturation, off-resonance, and sensitivity were considered during the reconstruction process. Metabolites were quantified with reference to an external 31P standard. Concentrations of 9.0 +/- 1.2 and 5.3 +/- 1.2 mmol/kg wet wt (mean +/- SD, n = 9) were determined for PCr and ATP in normal heart, respectively. The influence of nuclear Overhauser enhancement on metabolite quantification is discussed.