Reproducibility of native myocardial T1 mapping in the assessment of Fabry disease and its role in early detection of cardiac involvement by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.
Pica S., Sado DM., Maestrini V., Fontana M., White SK., Treibel T., Captur G., Anderson S., Piechnik SK., Robson MD., Lachmann RH., Murphy E., Mehta A., Hughes D., Kellman P., Elliott PM., Herrey AS., Moon JC.
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) derived native myocardial T1 is decreased in patients with Fabry disease even before left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) occurs and may be the first non-invasive measure of myocyte sphingolipid storage. The relationship of native T1 lowering prior to hypertrophy and other candidate early phenotype markers are unknown. Furthermore, the reproducibility of T1 mapping has never been assessed in Fabry disease. METHODS: Sixty-three patients, 34 (54%) female, mean age 48±15 years with confirmed (genotyped) Fabry disease underwent CMR, ECG and echocardiographic assessment. LVH was absent in 25 (40%) patients. Native T1 mapping was performed with both Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequences and a shortened version (ShMOLLI) at 1.5 Tesla. Twenty-one patients underwent a second scan within 24 hours to assess inter-study reproducibility. Results were compared with 63 healthy age and gender-matched volunteers. RESULTS: Mean native T1 in Fabry disease (LVH positive), (LVH negative) and healthy volunteers was 853±50 ms, 904±46 ms and 968±32 ms (for all p<0.0001) by ShMOLLI sequences. Native T1 showed high inter-study, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of 0.99, 0.98, 0.97 (ShMOLLI) and 0.98, 0.98, 0.98 (MOLLI). In Fabry disease LVH negative individuals, low native T1 was associated with reduced echocardiographic-based global longitudinal speckle tracking strain (-18±2% vs -22±2%, p=0.001) and early diastolic function impairment (E/E'=7 [6-8] vs 5 [5-6], p=0.028). CONCLUSION: Native T1 mapping in Fabry disease is a reproducible technique. T1 reduction prior to the onset of LVH is associated with early diastolic and systolic changes measured by echocardiography.