Continuous assessment of cerebral autoregulation: clinical and laboratory experience.
Czosnyka M., Smielewski P., Czosnyka Z., Piechnik S., Steiner LA., Schmidt E., Gooskens I., Soehle M., Lang EW., Matta BF., Pickard JD.
The method for the continuous assessment of cerebral autoregulation using slow waves of MCA blood flow velocity (FV) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) or arterial pressure (ABP) has been introduced seven years ago. We intend to review its clinical applications in various scenarios. Moving correlation coefficient (3-6 min window), named Mx, is calculated between low-pass filtered (0.05 Hz) signals of FV and CPP or ABP (when ICP is not measured directly). Data from ventilated 243 head injuries and 15 patients after poor grade subarachnoid haemorrhage, 38 patients with Carotid Artery stenosis, 35 patients with hydrocephalus and fourteen healthy volunteers is presented. Good agreement between the leg-cuff test and Mx has been confirmed in healthy volunteers (r = 0.81). Mx also correlated significantly with the static rate of autoregulation and transient hyperaemic response test. Autoregulation was disturbed (p < 0.021) by vasospasm after SAH and worse in patients with hydrocephalus in whom CSF circulation was normal (p < 0.02). In head injury, Mx indicated disturbed autoregulation with low CPP (< 55 mmHg) and too high CPP (> 95 mmHg). Mx strongly discriminated between patients with favourable and unfavourable outcome (p < 0.00002). This method can be used in many clinical scenarios for continuous monitoring of cerebral autoregulation, predicting outcome and optimising treatment strategies.