7-Deaza-8-bromo-cyclic ADP-ribose, the first membrane-permeant, hydrolysis-resistant cyclic ADP-ribose antagonist.
Sethi JK., Empson RM., Bailey VC., Potter BV., Galione A.
Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is a putative second messenger that has been demonstrated to mobilize Ca2+ in many cell types. Its postulated role as the endogenous regulator of ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channels has been greatly supported by the advent and use of specific cADPR receptor antagonists such as 8-NH2-cADPR (Walseth, T. F., and Lee, H. C. (1993) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1178, 235-242). However, investigations of the role of cADPR in physiological responses, such as fertilization, stimulus-secretion coupling, and excitation-contraction coupling, have been hindered by the susceptibility of cADPR receptor antagonists to hydrolysis and the need to introduce these molecules into cells by microinjection or patch clamp techniques. We have recently reported on the discovery of a poorly hydrolyzable analogue of cADPR, 7-deaza-cADPR (Bailey, V. C., Sethi, J. K., Fortt, S. M., Galione, A., and Potter, B. V. L. (1997) Chem. Biol. 4, 41-51) but this, like cADPR, is an agonist of ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channels. We therefore explored the possibility of combining antagonistic activity with that of hydrolytic resistance and now report on the biological properties of the first hydrolysis-resistant cADPR receptor antagonist, 7-deaza-8-bromo-cADPR. In addition this compound has the advantage of being membrane-permeable. Together these properties make this hybrid molecule the most powerful tool to date for studying cADPR-mediated Ca2+ signaling in intact cells.