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OBJECTIVES: To investigate the factors associated with age at natural menopause in a large population of Chinese adult women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was part of the baseline survey of China Kadoorie Biobank in Zhejiang Province. A total of 17,076 postmenopausal women were included in the present study. Relevant data of socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary and reproductive characteristics were collected. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the associated factors of age at natural menopause with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. RESULTS: The mean age at natural menopause was 48.94 years, with 3.40% of the women experienced premature menopause and 6.75% early menopause. Younger age, higher education, consumption of meat (1-3 days per week) and increased parity were associated with late menopause. Current smoking, underweight, higher physical activity, consumption of sea food (1-3 days per week), fresh eggs (≥4 days per week), fresh fruits (≥1 day per week), taking vitamins, experiencing severe food shortage, earlier age at menarche and older age at first birth were associated with earlier age at natural menopause. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that certain factors involved with socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary and reproductive characteristics are related to the age at natural menopause in Chinese women.

Original publication




Journal article


PLoS One

Publication Date





Adolescent, Adult, Age Factors, Aged, China, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Humans, Life Style, Menarche, Menopause, Menopause, Premature, Middle Aged, Reproductive History, Rural Population, Socioeconomic Factors