Phorbol esters impair endothelium-dependent and independent relaxation in rat aortic rings.
Murphy TV., Cross KM., Dunning PM., Garland CJ.
1. This study examined the ability of various nitro-vasodilators, 8-bromo cyclic guanosine 3':5' monophosphate (8-BrcGMP) and forskolin to relax rings of rat thoracic aorta pre-contracted with either noradrenaline (0.1 microM) or the protein kinase C activators, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB, 0.1 microM) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 0.5 microM). 2. In noradrenaline pre-contracted rings, acetylcholine (10 nM-10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (1 nM-0.5 microM), the calcium ionophore A23187 (10 nM-10 microM) and 8-BrcGMP (10 mM) totally reversed the smooth muscle contraction. In PDB-contracted aortic rings acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside and 8-BrcGMP-induced relaxation was reduced compared to that in noradrenaline-contracted aortic rings, but A23187 and forskolin-induced relaxations were unaffected. Both acetylcholine and A23187-induced relaxations in PDB-contracted rings were abolished in the presence of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA, 100 microM). 3. Acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were even less potent in their ability to relax PMA-contracted aortic rings compared with noradrenaline and PDB-contracted rings. A23187-induced relaxation was also inhibited in PMA-contracted rings. 4. These results show that protein kinase C activation reduces the ability of agents which liberate nitric oxide to induce smooth muscle relaxation, and also inhibits the biochemical pathways which are subsequently activated by nitric oxide and lead to vascular smooth muscle relaxation.