A metabolomic profile is associated with the risk of incident coronary heart disease.
Vaarhorst AAM., Verhoeven A., Weller CM., Böhringer S., Göraler S., Meissner A., Deelder AM., Henneman P., Gorgels APM., van den Brandt PA., Schouten LJ., van Greevenbroek MM., Merry AHH., Verschuren WMM., van den Maagdenberg AMJM., van Dijk KW., Isaacs A., Boomsma D., Oostra BA., van Duijn CM., Jukema JW., Boer JMA., Feskens E., Heijmans BT., Slagboom PE.
BACKGROUND: Metabolomics, defined as the comprehensive identification and quantification of low-molecular-weight metabolites to be found in a biological sample, has been put forward as a potential tool for classifying individuals according to their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we investigated whether a single-point blood measurement of the metabolome is associated with and predictive for the risk of CHD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We obtained proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra in 79 cases who developed CHD during follow-up (median 8.1 years) and in 565 randomly selected individuals. In these spectra, 100 signals representing 36 metabolites were identified. Applying least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression, we defined a weighted metabolite score consisting of 13 proton nuclear magnetic resonance signals that optimally predicted CHD. This metabolite score, including signals representing a lipid fraction, glucose, valine, ornithine, glutamate, creatinine, glycoproteins, citrate, and 1.5-anhydrosorbitol, was associated with the incidence of CHD independent of traditional risk factors (TRFs) (hazard ratio 1.50, 95% CI 1.12-2.01). Predictive performance of this metabolite score on its own was moderate (C-index 0.75, 95% CI 0.70-0.80), but after adding age and sex, the C-index was only modestly lower than that of TRFs (C-index 0.81, 95% CI 0.77-0.85 and C-index 0.82, 95% CI 0.78-0.87, respectively). The metabolite score was also associated with prevalent CHD independent of TRFs (odds ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.19-2.13). CONCLUSION: A metabolite score derived from a single-point metabolome measurement is associated with CHD, and metabolomics may be a promising tool for refining and improving the prediction of CHD.