Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Among the animal models for studying the molecular basis of atrial and sinoatrial node (SAN) biology and disease, the mouse is a widely used species due to its feasibility for genetic modifications in genes encoding ion channels or calcium handling and signaling proteins in the heart. It is therefore highly valuable to develop robust methodologies for studying SAN and atrial electrophysiological function in this species. Here, we describe a protocol for performing dual calcium-voltage optical mapping on mouse sinoatrial preparation (SAP), in combination with an optogenetic approach, for studying SAP membrane potential, intracellular Ca2+ transients, and pacemaker activity. The protocol includes the details for preparing the intact SAP, robust tissue dual-dye loading, light-programmed pacing, and high-resolution optical mapping. Our protocol provides an example of use of the combination of optogenetic and optical mapping techniques for investigating SAP membrane potential and intracellular Ca2+ transients and pacemaker activity with high temporal and spatial resolution in specific cardiac tissues. Thus, our protocol provides a useful tool for studying SAP physiology and pathophysiology in mice.

Original publication




Journal article


Front Physiol

Publication Date





Ca2+ transient, murine heart, optical mapping, optogenetic pacing, sinoatrial preparation