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Since the 1960s, models of the action potential in various cardiac cell types have been developed, and since the 1990s, 3-dimensional anatomic (or geometric) models of various cardiac structures have been developed. We are approaching the time when, for one species, we should have a complete set of action potential and anatomic models for the various cardiac tissues and then we will have realized the aim of constructing a "virtual heart" with accurate anatomy and electrophysiology. However, already the two types of model are beginning to be used in tandem to reconstruct the activation sequence of the heart both during sinus rhythm and arrhythmias.

Original publication




Conference paper

Publication Date





113 - 120


Action Potentials, Anatomy, Cross-Sectional, Animals, Atrioventricular Node, Electric Conductivity, Humans, Imaging, Three-Dimensional, Models, Anatomic, Sinoatrial Node