Purified TPC isoforms form NAADP receptors with distinct roles for Ca(2+) signaling and endolysosomal trafficking.
Ruas M., Rietdorf K., Arredouani A., Davis LC., Lloyd-Evans E., Koegel H., Funnell TM., Morgan AJ., Ward JA., Watanabe K., Cheng X., Churchill GC., Zhu MX., Platt FM., Wessel GM., Parrington J., Galione A.
Intracellular Ca(2+) signals constitute key elements in signal transduction. Of the three major Ca(2+) mobilizing messengers described, the most potent, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is the least well understood in terms of its molecular targets . Recently, we showed that heterologous expression of two-pore channel (TPC) proteins enhances NAADP-induced Ca(2+) release, whereas the NAADP response was abolished in pancreatic beta cells from Tpcn2 gene knockout mice . However, whether TPCs constitute native NAADP receptors is unclear. Here we show that immunopurified endogenous TPC complexes possess the hallmark properties ascribed to NAADP receptors, including nanomolar ligand affinity [3-5]. Our study also reveals important functional differences between the three TPC isoforms. Thus, TPC1 and TPC2 both mediate NAADP-induced Ca(2+) release, but the subsequent amplification of this trigger Ca(2+) by IP(3)Rs is more tightly coupled for TPC2. In contrast, TPC3 expression suppressed NAADP-induced Ca(2+) release. Finally, increased TPC expression has dramatic and contrasting effects on endolysosomal structures and dynamics, implicating a role for NAADP in the regulation of vesicular trafficking. We propose that NAADP regulates endolysosomal Ca(2+) storage and release via TPCs and coordinates endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release in a role that impacts on Ca(2+) signaling in health and disease .