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Abstract Both short and long sleep are associated with an adverse lipid profile, likely through different biological pathways. To provide new insights in the biology of sleep-associated adverse lipid profile, we conducted multi-ancestry genome-wide sleep-SNP interaction analyses on three lipid traits (HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides). In the total study sample (discovery + replication) of 126,926 individuals from 5 different ancestry groups, when considering either long or short total sleep time interactions in joint analyses, we identified 49 novel lipid loci, and 10 additional novel lipid loci in a restricted sample of European-ancestry cohorts. In addition, we identified new gene-sleep interactions for known lipid loci such as LPL and PCSK9 . The novel gene-sleep interactions had a modest explained variance in lipid levels: most notable, gene-short-sleep interactions explained 4.25% of the variance in triglyceride concentration. Collectively, these findings contribute to our understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in sleep-associated adverse lipid profiles.

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