Inflammatory Mechanisms in COVID-19 and Atherosclerosis: Current Pharmaceutical Perspectives.
Sagris M., Theofilis P., Antonopoulos AS., Tsioufis C., Oikonomou E., Antoniades C., Crea F., Kaski JC., Tousoulis D.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been associated with excess mortality worldwide. The cardiovascular system is the second most common target of SARS-CoV-2, which leads to severe complications, including acute myocardial injury, myocarditis, arrhythmias, and venous thromboembolism, as well as other major thrombotic events because of direct endothelial injury and an excessive systemic inflammatory response. This review focuses on the similarities and the differences of inflammatory pathways involved in COVID-19 and atherosclerosis. Anti-inflammatory agents and immunomodulators have recently been assessed, which may constitute rational treatments for the reduction of cardiovascular events in both COVID-19 and atherosclerotic heart disease.