Association of kidney function with NMR-quantified lipids, lipoproteins, and metabolic measures in Mexican adults
Aguilar-Ramirez D., Alegre-Díaz J., Herrington WG., Staplin N., Ramirez-Reyes R., Gnatiuc L., Hill M., Romer F., Torres J., Trichia E., Wade R., Collins R., Emberson JR., Kuri-Morales P., Tapia-Conyer R.
Context Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes are associated with dyslipidaemia, metabolic abnormalities, and atherosclerotic risk. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy provides much more detail on lipoproteins than traditional assays. Methods In about 38,000 participants from the Mexico City Prospective Study, aged 35-84 years and not using lipid-lowering medication, NMR spectroscopy quantified plasma concentrations of lipoprotein particles, their lipidic compositions, and other metabolic measures. Linear regression related low eGFR (<60mL/min/1.73m2) to each NMR-measure after adjustment for confounders and for multiplicity. Analyses were done separately for those with and without diabetes. Results Among the 38,081 participants (mean age 52 years, 64% women), low eGFR was present for 4.8% (306/6,403) of those with diabetes and 1.2% (365/31,678) of those without diabetes. Among both those with and without diabetes, low eGFR was significantly associated with higher levels of 58 NMR-measures – including apolipoprotein B (Apo-B), the particle numbers of most Apo-B containing lipoproteins, the cholesterol and triglycerides carried in these lipoproteins, several fatty acids, total cholines and phosphatidylcholine, citrate, glutamine, phenylalanine, β-OH-butyrate, and the inflammatory measure glycoprotein-A – and significantly lower levels of 13 NMR-measures, including medium and small high-density lipoprotein particle measures, very low-density lipoprotein particle size, the ratio of saturated:total fatty acids, valine, tyrosine, and aceto-acetate. Conclusions In this Mexican population with high levels of adiposity and diabetes, low kidney function was associated with widespread alterations in lipidic and metabolic profiles, both in those with and without diabetes. These alterations may help explain the higher atherosclerotic risk experienced by people with CKD.