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Previous research found tobacco smoking and solid fuel use for cooking to increase the risk of chronic liver disease mortality, but previous cohort studies have not investigated their independent and joint associations with liver cancer incidence in contemporary China. The China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study recruited 0.5 million adults aged 30 to 79 years from 10 areas across China during 2004 to 2008. Participants reported detailed smoking and fuel use information at baseline. After an 11.1-year median follow-up via electronic record linkage, we recorded 2997 liver cancer cases. Overall, 29.4% participants were current smokers. Among those who cooked at least once per month, 48.8% always used solid fuels (ie, coal or wood) for cooking. Tobacco smoking and solid fuel use for cooking were independently associated with increased risks of liver cancer, with hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of 1.28 (1.15-1.42) and 1.25 (1.03-1.52), respectively. The more cigarettes consumed each day, the earlier the age of starting smoking or the longer duration of solid fuels exposure, the higher the risk (Ptrend  

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Cancer

Publication Date





181 - 190


liver cancer, prospective cohort study, solid fuel, tobacco smoking, Adult, Aged, Air Pollution, Indoor, China, Cohort Studies, Cooking, Humans, Liver Neoplasms, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Tobacco Smoking