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Importance: Recent studies suggest that the diabetes drug metformin has a protective effect on open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, studies have not addressed the critical issue of confounding by indication, and associations have not been evaluated in a large prospective cohort. Objective: To determine the association between diabetes medication and the common eye diseases OAG, AMD, and cataract and to evaluate their cumulative lifetime risks in a large cohort study. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included participants from 3 independent cohorts from the prospective, population-based Rotterdam Study between April 23, 1990, and June 25, 2014. Participants were monitored for incident eye diseases (OAG, AMD, cataract) and had baseline measurements of serum glucose. Data on diabetes medication use and data from ophthalmologic examinations were gathered. Exposures: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the diabetes medications metformin, insulin, and sulfonylurea derivatives. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosis and cumulative lifetime risk of OAG, AMD, and cataract. Results: This study included 11 260 participants (mean [SD] age, 65.1 [9.8]; 6610 women [58.7%]). T2D was diagnosed in 2406 participants (28.4%), OAG was diagnosed in 324 of 7394 participants (4.4%), AMD was diagnosed in 1935 of 10 993 participants (17.6%), and cataract was diagnosed in 4203 of 11 260 participants (37.3%). Untreated T2D was associated with a higher risk of OAG (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% CI, 1.06-2.13; P = .02), AMD (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11-1.64; P = .003), and cataract (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.39-1.92; P 

Original publication




Journal article


JAMA Ophthalmol

Publication Date