Allogeneic transplantation combining mobilized blood and bone marrow in patients with refractory hematologic malignancies.
Nemunaitis J., Rosenfeld C., Collins R., Pallansch P., Piñeiro L., Ohr S., Waxman D., Stone M., Fay J., Miller W.
BACKGROUND: Mobilized blood stem cells have been used successfully in autologous transplant recipients to reduce the complications of pancytopenia due to dose-intensive chemotherapy. Reports of cytokine-mobilized blood progenitor cells in allogeneic transplant recipients are rare. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a pilot trial of six patients. Patients with advanced hematologic malignancy received bone marrow (median total 2.6 x 10(8) mononuclear cells/kg) followed by four daily transfusions of blood (median total 9.5 x 10(8) mononuclear cells/kg) from HLA-matched sibling donors who were mobilized with recombinant human granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (5 micrograms/kg/day subcutaneously for 5 days). All patients received cyclosporine and prednisone for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. RESULTS: An absolute neutrophil count greater than 500 per mm3 was achieved on Day 12, and platelet transfusion independence was achieved on Day 16. The median day of hospital discharge was Day 23 after transplant. All patients achieved 100-percent donor cell engraftment. Acute > or = Grade III GVHD did not develop in any patients, but all patients developed Grade I (n = 4) or Grade II (n = 2) acute GVHD. Chronic extensive GVHD developed in four of six patients. One patient died of pneumonia 263 days after transplant while undergoing immune-suppressive therapy for chronic GVHD. CONCLUSION: The transfusion of blood stem cells in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplant is well tolerated soon after transplant, but the development of chronic GVHD may limit the general usage of unmanipulated blood stem cells.