Pathogenesis of Cardiomyopathy Caused by Variants in ALPK3, an Essential Pseudokinase in the Cardiomyocyte Nucleus and Sarcomere.
Agarwal R., Wakimoto H., Paulo JA., Zhang Q., Reichart D., Toepfer C., Sharma A., Tai AC., Lun M., Gorham J., DePalma SR., Gygi SP., Seidman JG., Seidman CE.
BACKGROUND: ALPK3 encodes α-kinase 3, a muscle-specific protein of unknown function. ALPK3 loss-of-function variants cause cardiomyopathy with distinctive clinical manifestations in both children and adults, but the molecular functions of ALPK3 remain poorly understood. METHODS: We explored the putative kinase activity of ALPK3 and the consequences of damaging variants using isogenic human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, mice, and human patient tissues. RESULTS: Multiple sequence alignment of all human α-kinase domains and their orthologs revealed 4 conserved residues that were variant only in ALPK3, demonstrating evolutionary divergence of the ALPK3 α-kinase domain sequence. Phosphoproteomic evaluation of both ALPK3 kinase domain inhibition and overexpression failed to detect significant changes in catalytic activity, establishing ALPK3 as a pseudokinase. Investigations into alternative functions revealed that ALPK3 colocalized with myomesin proteins (MYOM1, MYOM2) at both the nuclear envelope and the sarcomere M-band. ALPK3 loss-of-function variants caused myomesin proteins to mislocalize and also dysregulated several additional M-band proteins involved in sarcomere protein turnover, which ultimately impaired cardiomyocyte structure and function. CONCLUSIONS: ALPK3 is an essential cardiac pseudokinase that inserts in the nuclear envelope and the sarcomere M-band. Loss of ALPK3 causes mislocalization of myomesins, critical force-buffering proteins in cardiomyocytes, and also dysregulates M-band proteins necessary for sarcomere protein turnover. We conclude that ALPK3 cardiomyopathy induces ventricular dilatation caused by insufficient myomesin-mediated force buffering and hypertrophy by impairment of sarcomere proteostasis.