Randomised Controlled Trial of Intravenous Nafamostat Mesylate in COVID Pneumonitis: Phase 1b/2a Experimental Study to Investigate Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Quinn TM., Gaughan E., Bruce A., Antonelli J., O'Connor R., Li F., McNamara S., Koch O., MacKintosh C., Dockrell D., Walsh T., Blyth K., Church C., Schwarze J., Boz C., Valanciute A., Burgess M., Emanuel P., Mills B., Rinaldi G., Hardisty G., Mills R., Findlay E., Jabball S., Duncan A., Plant S., Marshall A., Young I., Russell K., Scholefield E., Nimmo A., Nazarov I., Churchill G., McCullagh J., Ebrahimi K., Ferrett C., Templeton K., Rannard S., Owen A., Moore A., Finlayson K., Shankar-Hari M., Norrie J., Parker R., Akram A., Anthony D., Dear J., Hirani N., Dhaliwal K.
Background: Many repurposed drugs have progressed rapidly to Phase 2 and 3 trials in COVID19 without characterisation of Pharmacokinetics /Pharmacodynamics including safety data. One such drug is Nafamostat Mesylate.Methods: We present the findings of a phase Ib/II open label, platform randomised controlled trial of intravenous Nafamostat in hospitalised patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonitis. Patients were assigned randomly to standard of care (SoC), Nafamostat or an alternative therapy. Nafamostat was administered as an intravenous infusion at a dose of 0.2mg/kg/hour for a maximum of seven days. The analysis population included those who received any dose of the trial drug and all patients randomised to SoC.Results: Data is reported from 42 patients, 21 of which were randomly assigned to receive intravenous Nafamostat. 78% of Nafamostat-treated patients experienced at least one AE compared to 57% of the SoC group. The Nafamostat group developed significantly higher plasma creatinine levels and had a lower number of oxygen free days (posterior mean difference 10.57 micromol/L, 95% HPD interval 2.43 - 18.92, rate ratio 0.55- 95% HPD interval 0.31- 0.99 respectively). There were no other statistically significant differences in endpoints between Nafamostat and SoC. PK data demonstrated that intravenous Nafamostat was rapidly broken down to inactive metabolites. We observed no significant anticoagulant effects in thromboelastometry. Participants in the Nafamostat group had higher D-Dimers.Interpretation: In hospitalised patients with COVID-19, we did not observe evidence of anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant or antiviral activity with intravenous Nafamostat. Further evaluation of Nafamostat delivered via a different route may be warranted.Clinical Trial Registration Details: This trial has been registered on ISRCTN (https://www.isrctn.com/) ISRCTN14212905, and Clinicaltrials.gov (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/) NCT04473053. Funding Information: DEFINE was funded by LifeArc (an independent medical research charity under the STOPCOVID award to the University of Edinburgh. We also thank the Oxford University COVID-19 Research Response Fund (BRD00230).Declaration of Interests: The authors report no conflict of interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The DEFINE trial has received full ethical approval from Scotland A REC (20/SS/0066), the MHRA (EudraCT 2020-002230-32) and NHS Lothian. Written informed consent was taken by trial clinicians prior to any trial procedures being performed. If a patient lacked capacity, consent could be provided by their next of kin.