Treatment and prevention strategies for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have traditionally focused on targeting lipid-related factors in addition to stopping smoking and treating hypertension for decreasing CVD risk. This chapter reviews current evidence on the effects of dietary nutrients on the traditional lipid-related factors such as plasma levels of total and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and triglycerides. It provides an update of the role of the more novel lipid biomarkers and describes how knowledge in the role of lipid-related cardiovascular risks has changed since the last British Nutrition Foundation report. The chapter discusses the pathophysiology of lipoproteins and CVD risk. It reviews the epidemiological evidence on the associations of lipid-related factors with CVD risk. The chapter describes the effects of exchanging dietary fatty acids on plasma lipoproteins and the proposed mechanisms by which increasing dietary free sugars affect fasting and postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. It also suggests important areas of further research.