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PURPOSE: Acetylcarnitine can be assessed in vivo using proton MRS (1 H-MRS) with long TEs and this has been previously applied successfully in muscle. The aim of this study was to evaluate a 1 H-MRS technique for liver acetylcarnitine quantification in healthy humans before and after l-carnitine supplementation. METHOD: Baseline acetylcarnitine levels were quantified using a STEAM sequence with prolonged TE in 15 healthy adults. Using STEAM with four different TEs was evaluated in phantoms. To assess reproducibility of the measurements, five of the participants had repeated 1 H-MRS without receiving l-carnitine supplementation. To determine if liver acetylcarnitine could be changed after l-carnitine supplementation, acetylcarnitine was quantified 2 h after intravenous l-carnitine supplementation (50 mg/kg body weight) in the other 10 participants. Hepatic lipids were also quantified from the 1 H-MRS spectra. RESULTS: There was good separation between the acetylcarnitine and fat in the phantoms using TE = 100 ms. Hepatic acetylcarnitine levels were reproducible (coefficient of reproducibility = 0.049%) and there was a significant (p 

Original publication




Journal article


Magn Reson Med

Publication Date





1314 - 1322


1H-MRS, acetylcarnitine, acetylcarnitine measurements, carnitine supplementation, liver spectroscopy, Adult, Humans, Acetylcarnitine, Carnitine, Reproducibility of Results, Muscle, Skeletal, Liver, Dietary Supplements, Lipids