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Oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids (oxylipins) are bioactive molecules established as important mediators during inflammation. Different classes of oxylipins have been found to have opposite effects, e.g., pro-inflammatory prostaglandins and anti-inflammatory resolvins. Production of the different classes of oxylipins occurs during distinct stages of development and resolution of inflammation. Chronic inflammation is involved in the progression of many pathophysiological conditions and diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, diabetes, and obesity. Determining oxylipin profiles before, during, and after inflammatory-related diseases could provide clues to the onset, development, and prevention of detrimental conditions. This review focusses on recent developments in our understanding of the role of oxylipins in inflammatory disease, and outlines novel technological advancements and approaches to study their action.

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diagnosis, eicosanoid, inflammation, mass spectrometry, progression, treatment