Metabolically defined body size and body shape phenotypes and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Mahamat-Saleh Y., Rinaldi S., Kaaks R., Biessy C., Gonzalez-Gil EM., Murphy N., Le Cornet C., Huerta JM., Sieri S., Tjønneland A., Mellemkjaer L., Guevara M., Overvad K., Perez-Cornago A., Tin Tin S., Padroni L., Simeon V., Masala G., May A., Monninkhof E., Christakoudi S., Heath AK., Tsilidis K., Agudo A., Schulze MB., Rothwell J., Cadeau C., Severi S., Weiderpass E., Gunter MJ., Dossus L.
BACKGROUND: Excess body fatness and hyperinsulinemia are both associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. However, whether women with high body fatness but normal insulin levels or those with normal body fatness and high levels of insulin are at elevated risk of breast cancer is not known. We investigated the associations of metabolically defined body size and shape phenotypes with the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. METHODS: Concentrations of C-peptide-a marker for insulin secretion-were measured at inclusion prior to cancer diagnosis in serum from 610 incident postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 1130 matched controls. C-peptide concentrations among the control participants were used to define metabolically healthy (MH; in first tertile) and metabolically unhealthy (MU; >1st tertile) status. We created four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories by combining the metabolic health definitions with normal weight (NW; BMI