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Objective: To evaluate the associations of sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors with longevity status in older adults in China. Methods: After excluding those born after 31st December 1938, a total of 51 870 older adults from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) were included. The attained age was defined according to the survival age or age on 31st December 2018. According to the attained age, the old persons were categorized into non-longevity (died before age 80 years) and longevity (attained age ≥80 years). The longevity group was further divided into two groups: longevity with death occurring before 2019, and longevity and survival to 2019. The information about socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyles was collected at the 2004-2008 baseline survey. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations between exposure factors and outcomes by taking the non-longevity group as the reference group. Results: A total of 51 870 older adults aged 65-79 years in the baseline survey were included for analysis. During a follow-up for (10.2±3.5) years, 38 841 participants were longevity, and 30 354 participants still survived at the end of 2018. Compared to men, rural populations, non-married individuals, those with an annual household income of less than 10 000 yuan, and those with education levels of primary school or below, the adjusted ORs(95%CI) for longevity and survival to 2019 in women, urban residents, married individuals, those with annual household incomes ≥20 000 yuan, and those with education levels of college or university were 1.68 (1.58-1.78), 1.69 (1.61-1.78), 1.15 (1.10-1.21), 1.44 (1.36-1.53), and 1.32 (1.19-1.48), respectively. The OR (95%CI) for longevity and survival to 2019 was 1.09 (1.08-1.10) for those with an increase of 4 MET-hour/day in total physical activity level. With those who never or almost never smoked, had no alcohol drinking every week, had normal weight (BMI: 18.5-23.9 kg/m2), and WC <85 cm (man)/<80 cm (woman) as the reference groups, the ORs(95%CI) of longevity and survival to 2019 were 0.64 (0.60-0.69) for those smoking ≥20 cigarettes per day, 1.29 (1.14-1.46) for those with alcohol drinking every week, 1.13 (1.01-1.26) for those with pure alcohol drinking <30 g per day, 0.56 (0.52-0.61) for those being underweight, 1.27 (1.19-1.36) for those being overweight, 1.23 (1.11-1.36) for those with obesity, and 0.86 (0.79-0.93) for those with central obesity. Further stratified analysis by WC was performed. In the older adults with WC <85 cm (man)/<80 cm (woman), the ORs (95%CI) of longevity and survival was 1.80 (1.69-1.92) for those with each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI and 1.02 (0.96-1.08) for those with WC ≥85 cm (man)/≥80 cm (woman). There was a statistically significant difference in the association between BMI and longevity between the two WC groups (interaction test P<0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that women, the married, those with higher socioeconomic status and education level, and those with healthy lifestyles were more likely to achieve longevity.

Original publication




Journal article


Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi

Publication Date





26 - 34


Male, Humans, Female, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Longevity, Risk Factors, Prospective Studies, Body Mass Index, Obesity, China