Blockade of the human platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptor by a murine monoclonal antibody Fab fragment (7E3): potent dose-dependent inhibition of platelet function
Bhattacharya S., Jordan R., Machin S., Senior R., Mackie I., Smith CR., Schaible TF., Weisman HF., Lahiri A.
The platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor can bind fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and other adhesive ligands; this binding is the final common pathway mediating platelet aggregation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and platelet inhibitory characteristics of the Fab fragment of the murine monoclonal anti-GPII/IIIa 7E3 antibody (m7E3 Fab) when administered intravenously as a single bolus dose, as a single and repeat bolus dose, and as a single bolus dose followed by continuous infusions of varying duration. Various dosage regimens of m7E3 Fab were studied in 74 patients with stable angina. Dosage regimens included single doses of m7E3 Fab from 0.1 to 0.3 mg/kg, a single dose of 0.20-0.30 mg/kg, and a repeat dose of 0.05 mg/kg, or a loading dose followed by a continuous infusion of m7E3 Fab for up to 36 hours. To assess the effect of m7E3 Fab on platelet function, quantitative blockade of GPIIb/IIIa receptors, inhibition of ex vivo platelet aggregation, and template bleeding time were measured in all patients. Dose-dependent inhibition of platelet function was evident in response to escalating bolus doses of m7E3 Fab, with maximum inhibition observed at 0.25-0.30 mg/kg body weight; at the 0.30 mg/kg dose, mean (+/- SE) GPIIb/IIIa receptor blockade was 81 +/- 3%, ex vivo platelet aggregation in response to 20 microM ADP was 14 +/- 6% of baseline, and the median bleeding time was > 20 minutes. Although platelet function gradually recovered following a single bolus injection, platelet inhibition could be sustained by continuous, low-dose infusion of the antibody. Platelet inhibition occurred within minutes, but m7E3 Fab that did not bind to platelets cleared rapidly from circulation. Sixteen percent of the m7E3 Fab-injected subjects exhibited low titer, human anti-murine antibody responses. No significant bleeding or allergic reactions were observed in any patients. One of the 74 patients developed transient thrombocytopenia soon after receiving m7E3 Fab. These studies establish that m7E3 Fab can be administered safely at doses that cause profound inhibition of platelet function.