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Cyclic AMP controls several signalling cascades within cells, and changes in the amounts of this second messenger have an essential role in many cellular events. Here we describe a new methodology for monitoring the fluctuations of cAMP in living cells. By tagging the cAMP effector protein kinase A with two suitable green fluorescent protein mutants, we have generated a probe in which the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the two fluorescent moieties is dependent on the levels of cAMP. This new methodology opens the way to the elucidation of the biochemistry of cAMP in vivo.

Original publication




Journal article


Nat Cell Biol

Publication Date





25 - 29


Adrenergic alpha-Agonists, Adrenergic beta-Agonists, Adrenergic beta-Antagonists, Animals, Bucladesine, CHO Cells, COS Cells, Colforsin, Cricetinae, Cyclic AMP, Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein, Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases, Cytogenetic Analysis, Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic, Genes, Reporter, Green Fluorescent Proteins, Humans, Indicators and Reagents, Isoproterenol, Kidney, Luminescent Proteins, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Mutagenesis, Norepinephrine, Propranolol, Second Messenger Systems, Transfection, beta-Lactamases