Right ventricular abnormalities in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.
Rodrigues AC., Guimaraes L., Lira E., Oliveira W., Monaco C., Cordovil A., Fischer CH., Vieira M., Morhy S.
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, described as transient regional contractile abnormalities limited to the apical and mid-segments of the left ventricle (LV), has also been reported to involve basal and/or mid LV segments (inverted Takotsubo); fewer reports, however, have addressed right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. AIM: To assess the distribution of regional abnormalities and RV involvement in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and compare it to the literature. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 23 patients with both classical and inverted presentations (19 female, aged 64 ± 19 years), including 2 recurrences, totaling 25 episodes. Classical Takotsubo was observed in 15 patients, while 10 had the inverted form. LV ejection fraction (EF) was lower for classical compared to inverted presentation (30 ± 7 vs. 45 ± 4%, P < 0.001) with higher troponin values (1.3 ± 1.4 vs. 0.5 ± 0.6, P = 0.034). RV abnormalities were found in 7 patients (28%), mainly with classical presentation (6 patients), presenting with mid and apical RV impairment. One patient with inverted Takotsubo had mid-RV involvement. Patients with RV involvement had lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (28 ± 10% vs. 40 ± 10%, P = 0.02), but not when adjusted for presentation type. Overall rate of complications was higher for classical compared to inverted presentation, and not influenced by RV involvement. CONCLUSION: RV contractile abnormalities may follow the same LV regional distribution in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy; the type of presentation rather than the presence of RV dysfunction seems to be responsible for an increased risk of complications and severity of functional impairment.