Genetic cardiomyopathies causing heart failure.
Cahill TJ., Ashrafian H., Watkins H.
Despite the striking advances in medical and surgical therapy, the morbidity, mortality, and economic burden of heart failure (HF) remain unacceptably high. There is increasing evidence that the risk and course of HF depend on genetic predisposition; however, the genetic contribution to HF is heterogeneous and complex. At one end of the spectrum are the familial monogenic HF syndromes in which causative mutations are rare but highly penetrant. At the other, HF susceptibility and course may be influenced by more common, less penetrant genetic variants. As detailed in this review, efforts to unravel the basis of the familial cardiomyopathies at the mendelian end of the spectrum already have begun to deliver on the promise of informative mechanisms, novel gene-based diagnostics, and therapies for distinct subtypes of HF. However, continued progress requires the differentiation of pathogenic mutations, disease modifiers, and rare, benign variants in the deluge of data emerging from increasingly accessible novel sequencing technologies. This represents a significant challenge and demands a sustained effort in analysis of extended family pedigrees, diligent clinical phenotyping, and systematic annotation of human genetic variation.