Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Background: There is increasing evidence that Turner syndrome is associated with an elevated risk of a range of autoimmune disorders. We aimed to document this in a national study. Method: Use of a record-linked dataset of all hospital admissions in England, 1999-2011, to construct a retrospective cohort of people with Turner syndrome and a control cohort of people without it. Statistical follow-up to identify the occurrence of 29 separate autoimmune disorders in each cohort. Calculation of rate ratios, comparing the Turner and control cohorts. Results: In the Turner syndrome cohort (2459 people), rate ratios were elevated for 16 of the 29 conditions. Examples included coeliac disease (rate ratio 14.0, 95% CI 10.2 to 18.8), Crohn's disease (5.3, 3.5 to 7.8), ulcerative colitis (3.9, 2.3 to 6.1), hypothyroidism (8.8, 7.8 to 9.9) and hyperthyroidism (4.9, 3.2 to 7.1). Conclusions: The increased risk of autoimmune disorders in people with Turner syndrome covers a wide range of conditions.

Original publication




Journal article


Archives of Disease in Childhood

Publication Date





71 - 73