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OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between genotype at the insertion or deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene and risk of coronary restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of studies before July 2001 that reported on these genotypes and risk of coronary restenosis after a percutaneous coronary intervention, with or without coronary stenting. RESULTS: 16 studies, involving 4631 patients undergoing a percutaneous coronary intervention, yielded 1683 patients with restenosis after a mean weighted follow up of 5.5 months. The combined odds ratio for restenosis in people with the DD genotype was 1.23 (99% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.46). When studies were grouped by size, however, the combined odds ratios for restenosis in people with the DD genotype were 1.94 (1.39 to 2.71) for studies with less than 100 cases, 1.33 (0.92 to 1.93) for studies with 100-200 cases, and 0.92 (0.72 to 1.18) for studies with more than 200 cases (trend P=0.02). Similarly, when studies were grouped by genotyping procedures, significantly larger odds ratios were found in the studies that did not conceal disease status from laboratory staff and in the studies that did not use a second polymerase chain reaction amplification to reduce genetic mistyping. CONCLUSION: Compared with other studies, larger and more rigorous studies show a weaker association between the angiotensin converting enzyme gene DD genotype and restenosis. Publication bias or detection biases can produce artefactual associations at least as large as those that might be expected for common polymorphisms in complex diseases, suggesting the need for larger and more rigorous genetic epidemiological investigations than are now customary.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





517 - 520


Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary, Coronary Restenosis, DNA Transposable Elements, Gene Deletion, Humans, Odds Ratio, Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A, Polymorphism, Genetic, Stents, Translocation, Genetic