Heterogeneity in a large pedigree with Danon disease: Implications for pathogenesis and management.
Roos JCP., Daniels MJ., Morris E., Hyry HI., Cox TM.
BACKGROUND: Danon disease is an X-linked disturbance of autophagy manifesting with cognitive impairment and disordered heart and skeletal muscle. After a period of relative stability, patients deteriorate rapidly and may quickly become ineligible for elective heart transplantation - the only life-saving therapy. METHODS: We report a large pedigree with diverse manifestations of Danon disease in hemizygotes and female heterozygotes. RESULTS: Malignant cardiac arrhythmias requiring amiodarone treatment induced thyroid disease in two patients; intractable thyrotoxicosis, which enhances autophagy, caused the death of a 21year-old man. Our patients also had striking elevation of serum troponin I during the accelerated phase of their illness (p<0.01) and rising concentrations heralded cardiac decompensation. We argue for changes to cardiac transplantation eligibility criteria. CONCLUSION: Danon disease causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - here we propose a common pathophysiological basis for the metabolic and structural effects of this descriptive class of heart disorders. We also contend that troponin I may have prognostic value and merits exploration for clinical decision-making including health warning bracelets. Rapamycin (Sirolimus®), an approved immunosuppressant which also influences autophagy, may prove beneficial. In the interim, while new treatments are developed, a revaluation of cardiac transplantation eligibility criteria is warranted.