Association of branched-chain amino acids and other circulating metabolites with risk of incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease: A prospective study in eight cohorts.
Tynkkynen J., Chouraki V., van der Lee SJ., Hernesniemi J., Yang Q., Li S., Beiser A., Larson MG., Sääksjärvi K., Shipley MJ., Singh-Manoux A., Gerszten RE., Wang TJ., Havulinna AS., Würtz P., Fischer K., Demirkan A., Ikram MA., Amin N., Lehtimäki T., Kähönen M., Perola M., Metspalu A., Kangas AJ., Soininen P., Ala-Korpela M., Vasan RS., Kivimäki M., van Duijn CM., Seshadri S., Salomaa V.
INTRODUCTION: Metabolite, lipid, and lipoprotein lipid profiling can provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: We studied eight prospective cohorts with 22,623 participants profiled by nuclear magnetic resonance or mass spectrometry metabolomics. Four cohorts were used for discovery with replication undertaken in the other four to avoid false positives. For metabolites that survived replication, combined association results are presented. RESULTS: Over 246,698 person-years, 995 and 745 cases of incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease were detected, respectively. Three branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and valine), creatinine and two very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-specific lipoprotein lipid subclasses were associated with lower dementia risk. One high density lipoprotein (HDL; the concentration of cholesterol esters relative to total lipids in large HDL) and one VLDL (total cholesterol to total lipids ratio in very large VLDL) lipoprotein lipid subclass was associated with increased dementia risk. Branched-chain amino acids were also associated with decreased Alzheimer's disease risk and the concentration of cholesterol esters relative to total lipids in large HDL with increased Alzheimer's disease risk. DISCUSSION: Further studies can clarify whether these molecules play a causal role in dementia pathogenesis or are merely markers of early pathology.