Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, and the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism all influence serum angiotensin II action. Because angiotensin II levels have been associated with cancer, the objective of the current epidemiologic study was to investigate whether renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and/or ACE genotypes were associated with an altered risk of colorectal, lung, breast, and prostate cancer. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study with 7983 participants. Participants who had a history of 1 of the cancers of interest (n = 216) or who had a medication history <6 months (n = 88) were excluded, leaving 7679 participants, of whom the ACE genotypes could be assessed in 6670 individuals. The mean follow-up was 9.6 years, during which 730 incident cancers occurred. The effect of medication, ACE I/D genotypes, and their interaction on cancer risk and progression was studied by using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Carriers of the high-activity genotype DD had an increased risk of breast cancer compared with low-activity II/ID genotype carriers (hazard ratio [HR], 1.47; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.05-2.04), but no association was demonstrated for other cancers. DD carriers who were exposed to long-term and high-dose medication were at lower risk for cancer (HR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.10-0.79). Short-term, high-dose users were at risk for colorectal cancer progression in the II/ID stratum (HR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.67-8.79). CONCLUSIONS: Renin-angiotensin system-inhibiting drugs seemed to protect against cancer in individuals with the DD genotype, which was associated with high levels of ACE.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





748 - 757


Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Breast Neoplasms, Cohort Studies, Colorectal Neoplasms, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Genotype, Humans, Incidence, Lung Neoplasms, Male, Middle Aged, Mutagenesis, Insertional, Neoplasms, Netherlands, Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A, Polymorphism, Genetic, Proportional Hazards Models, Prostatic Neoplasms, Renin-Angiotensin System, Risk Assessment, Sequence Deletion