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OBJECTIVES: To study familial aggregation of primary open-angle glaucoma in a general population and to determine the absolute and relative risks for first-degree relatives. METHODS: First-degree relatives of patients with glaucoma (n = 48) and control subjects (n = 155) from the population-based Rotterdam Study underwent a standardized examination, including perimetry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intraocular pressure, vertical cup-disc ratio; and the presence of glaucoma, defined as a visual field defect with a cup-disc ratio of 0.7 or higher or asymmetry of 0.3 or higher between both eyes. RESULTS: The prevalence of glaucoma was 10.4% in siblings of patients, 1.1% in offspring of patients, 0.7% in siblings of controls, and 0% in offspring of controls. Life-time risk of elevated intraocular pressure in relatives of patients vs relatives of controls was 42.5% vs 6.7%, of enlarged cup-disc ratio was 62.2% vs 16.6%, and of glaucoma was 22.0% vs 2.3%, yielding a risk ratio for glaucoma of 9.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.2-73.9). The population-attributable risk of glaucoma was 16.4%. CONCLUSIONS: In a general population, relatives of patients with glaucoma have a strongly increased risk of glaucoma. Enlarged cup-disc ratio, not intraocular pressure, was the earliest and most prominent feature of familial aggregation. Further studies are needed to disentangle the genetic components of the increased familial risk.


Journal article


Arch Ophthalmol

Publication Date





1640 - 1645


Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Female, Genetics, Population, Glaucoma, Open-Angle, Humans, Intraocular Pressure, Male, Middle Aged, Netherlands, Nuclear Family, Odds Ratio, Optic Disk, Optic Nerve, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Visual Field Tests, Visual Fields