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OBJECTIVE: Previously we observed that non-carriers of the most common alleles of an IGF-I promoter polymorphism have low circulating IGF-I levels and an increased risk of developing myocardial infarction (MI), particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: We investigated whether this IGF-I promoter polymorphism is associated with survival of type 2 diabetes in a Caucasian population aged 55 years and older. METHODS: The study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study. At baseline, 668 patients with type 2 diabetes were diagnosed, among which, 55 incident MI were ascertained during follow-up. For the present study, we used two genotype groups: non-variant carriers (homozygous for 192, 194, or 192/194 bp genotypes), and variant carriers. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 8.8 years, 396 out of the 668 patients with type 2 diabetes (59.3%) died of various causes. The frequency of type 2 diabetes variant carrier and non-variant carriers was 28.7 and 71.3% respectively. The survival in patients with type 2 diabetes without an MI did not differ between the IGF-I genotype groups (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7-1.1, P = 0.1). In contrast, in those who developed an MI, variant carriers had a 2.4 times higher risk of mortality than non-variant carriers (95% CI: 1.2-4.8, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that genetically determined low IGF-I activity is an important determinant of survival in patients with type 2 diabetes who developed an MI. The IGF-I promoter polymorphism, therefore, may help to predict the future mortality risk in this group of patients.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur J Endocrinol

Publication Date





751 - 756


Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Cohort Studies, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Female, Humans, Insulin-Like Growth Factor I, Male, Middle Aged, Myocardial Infarction, Netherlands, Polymorphism, Genetic, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Prospective Studies, Survival Analysis