The risk of overanticoagulation in patients with cytochrome P450 CYP2C9*2 or CYP2C9*3 alleles on acenocoumarol or phenprocoumon.
Visser LE., van Vliet M., van Schaik RHN., Kasbergen AAH., De Smet PAGM., Vulto AG., Hofman A., van Duijn CM., Stricker BHC.
Cytochrome P4502C9 (CYP2C9) is the main enzyme implicated in coumarin anticoagulant metabolism. The variant alleles CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 are associated with an increased response to warfarin. However, an effect on acenocoumarol dose requirements appears to be absent for the CYP2C9*2 allele and the consequences for the metabolism of phenprocoumon have not yet been established. We investigated CYP2C9 polymorphisms in relation to the international normalized ratio (INR) during the first 6 weeks of treatment and its effect on the maintenance dose in a cohort of 1124 patients from the Rotterdam Study who were treated with acenocoumarol or phenprocoumon. There was a statistically significant difference in first INR between patients with variant genotypes and those with the wild-type. Almost all acenocoumarol-treated patients with a variant genotype had a significantly higher mean INR and had a higher risk of an INR > or = 6.0 during the first 6 weeks of treatment. A clear genotype-dose relationship was found for acenocoumarol-treated patients. For patients on phenprocoumon, no significant differences were found between variant genotypes and the wild-type genotype. Individuals with one or more CYP2C9*2 or CYP2C9*3 allele(s) require a significantly lower dose of acenocoumarol compared to wild-type patients. Phenprocoumon appears to be a clinically useful alternative in patients carrying the CYP2C9*2 and *3 alleles.