Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

PURPOSE: To examine the relation among serum cholesterol, apolipoprotein E genotype (APOE), and the risk of early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: The Rotterdam Study, a population based prospective cohort study. METHODS: Serum levels of total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as well as APOE genotype were determined at baseline. Of 3,944 subjects, 400 were diagnosed with incident early and late AMD after a mean follow-up of 5.2 years. RESULTS: Serum HDL, but not total, cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of AMD (odds ratio/SD, 1.20; 95% confidence interval; 1.06-1.35). The association remained unchanged after adjustment for APOE genotype. When stratifying for APOE genotype, the association was strongest in persons with the e 4 allele; an inverse association seemed to be present for e 2 carriers. CONCLUSION: Elevated HDL but not total cholesterol is associated with an increased risk of AMD. Apolipoprotein E genotype does not explain this association but may be an effect modifier.

Original publication




Journal article


Am J Ophthalmol

Publication Date





750 - 752


Apolipoproteins E, Cholesterol, Cholesterol, HDL, Genotype, Humans, Macular Degeneration, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors